Linux Kernel - 4.4

Linux 4.4 for AT91 source code

The Linux kernel for Atmel | SMART Processor Based PMUs (aka AT91) is distributed as a GIT tree hosted on GitHub as a fork of the official Linus Torvalds' git tree. The objective of the Atmel Linux team is to integrate all the AT91-related material in the official Linux Kernel.
Before completing this inclusion process, which can take time, this website provides the Linux4SAM Linux Kernel git tree for AT91 devices at:


linux4sam_5.5 tag

Enhancements are added on top of the official v4.4 Linux kernel tag. Note as well that we re-integrate each and every stable kernel release on top of this Long Term Support (LTS) kernel revision. This means that each v4.4.x version is merged in our branch. Here is a little summary of the main enhancements:

  • Integration of stable kernel updates up to v4.4.26
  • SAMA5D2: ISC and camera sensors enhancements (ov7740) to be compatible with V4L2
  • SAMA5D2: ADC driver backport from Linux Mainline
  • SAMA5D2: add FIFO configuration for I2C
  • WILC1000 WIFI driver backport from a recent Linux "staging" directory content
  • HDMI on SAMA5D4 Xplained: verified functioning sii902x driver
  • maXTouch driver: stabilize and integrate driver enhancements from atmel-maxtouch github repository
  • fixes: LCD driver vertical scaling, OHCI power consumption, SDHCI non-removable devices handling

linux4sam_5.4 tag

  • SAMA5D2: chipID, LED, push button, shutdown controller, TRNG
  • SAMA5D2: NAND driver enhancements (32 bits ECC)
  • SAMA5D2: new I2S driver
  • ISI and camera sensors enhancements
  • adaptation and use of the Bosch M_CAN device driver
  • audio PLL clock driver
  • PMIC and charger ACT8945A driver
  • crypto engines enhancement
  • quad-SPI support: QSPI
  • power management: support for ULP1 mode
  • support for PDA 4.3", 7" screens
  • HDMI on sama5d4 Xplained: add sii902x driver
  • USART fractional baud rate support
  • fixes: DMA residue computation, HSMCI regulator, i2c hold time

Getting Kernel sources

To get the source code, you have to clone the repository:

$ git clone git://
Cloning into 'linux-sama9x5-github'...
remote: Counting objects: 4524288, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (721/721), done.
remote: Total 4524288 (delta 385), reused 1 (delta 1), pack-reused 4523564
Receiving objects: 100% (4524288/4524288), 1.22 GiB | 1.35 MiB/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (3777338/3777338), done.
Checking connectivity... done.
Checking out files: 100% (49565/49565), done.

The source code has been taken from the master branch which is pointing on the latest branch we use.

Pointing hand Note that you can also add this Linux4SAM repository as a remote GIT repository to your usu

$ git remote add linux4sam git://
$ git remote update linux4sam
Fetching linux4sam
From git://
 * [new branch]                linux-2.6.39-at91 -> linux4sam/linux-2.6.39-at91
 * [new branch]                linux-3.10-at91 -> linux4sam/linux-3.10-at91
 * [new branch]                linux-3.15-at91 -> linux4sam/linux-3.15-at91
 * [new branch]                linux-3.18-at91 -> linux4sam/linux-3.18-at91
 * [new branch]                linux-3.4.9-at91 -> linux4sam/linux-3.4.9-at91
 * [new branch]                linux-3.6.9-at91 -> linux4sam/linux-3.6.9-at91
 * [new branch]                linux-4.1-at91 -> linux4sam/linux-4.1-at91
 * [new branch]                linux-4.4-at91 -> linux4sam/linux-4.4-at91
 * [new branch]                master     -> linux4sam/master

If you want to use an other branch, you can list them and use one of them by doing this:

$ git branch -r
  origin/HEAD -> origin/master
$ git checkout origin/linux-4.4-at91 -b linux-4.4-at91
Branch linux-4.1-at91 set up to track remote branch linux-4.4-at91 from origin.
Switched to a new branch 'linux-4.4-at91'

Configure and Build the Linux kernel

Now you have to configure the Linux kernel according to your hardware. We have two default configuration at91 SoC in arch/arm/configs

  • at91_dt_defconfig: for at91sam ARM926 series chips
  • sama5_defconfig: for SAMA5 series chips

Now we Configure and Build kernel for board:

$ make ARCH=arm sama5_defconfig
  HOSTCC  scripts/basic/fixdep
  HOSTCC  scripts/kconfig/conf.o
  SHIPPED scripts/kconfig/
  SHIPPED scripts/kconfig/zconf.lex.c
  SHIPPED scripts/kconfig/zconf.hash.c
  HOSTCC  scripts/kconfig/
  HOSTLD  scripts/kconfig/conf
# configuration written to .config

At this step, you can modify default configuration using the menuconfig

$ make ARCH=arm menuconfig

And build the Linux kernel image, before you build you need set up the cross compile toolchain, check this section.

$ make ARCH=arm


  Kernel: arch/arm/boot/Image is ready
  Kernel: arch/arm/boot/zImage is ready

Now you have an usable compressed kernel image zImage.

If you need an uImage you can run this additional step:

make ARCH=arm uImage LOADADDR=0x20008000


  Kernel: arch/arm/boot/zImage is ready
  UIMAGE  arch/arm/boot/uImage
Image Name:   Linux-4.1.0-linux4sam_5.3+
Created:      Fri Sep  9 17:02:45 2016
Image Type:   ARM Linux Kernel Image (uncompressed)
Data Size:    3441072 Bytes = 3360.42 kB = 3.28 MB
Load Address: 20008000
Entry Point:  20008000
  Image arch/arm/boot/uImage is ready

make ARCH=arm dtbs


  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91rm9200ek.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/mpa1600.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/animeo_ip.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91-qil_a9260.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/aks-cdu.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/ethernut5.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/evk-pro3.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/tny_a9260.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/usb_a9260.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91sam9261ek.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91sam9263ek.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/tny_a9263.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/usb_a9263.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91-foxg20.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91-kizbox.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91sam9g20ek.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91sam9g20ek_2mmc.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/tny_a9g20.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/usb_a9g20.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/usb_a9g20_lpw.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91sam9m10g45ek.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/pm9g45.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91sam9n12ek.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91sam9rlek.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91-ariag25.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91-ariettag25.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91-cosino_mega2560.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91-kizboxmini.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91sam9g15ek.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91sam9g25ek.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91sam9g35ek.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91sam9x25ek.dtb
  DTC     arch/arm/boot/dts/at91sam9x35ek.dtb

If the building process is successful, the final images can be found under arch/arm/boot/ directory.

Recent FAQ


Crypto Config: How to configure Crypto driver. (Sama5d29Curiosity, Sam9x75Curiosity, Sam9x60Curiosity, Sama5d2-icp, Sam9x60EK, Sama5d27WLSom1EK, Sama5d27Som1EK, Sama5d2PtcEK, Sama5d2Xplained, Sama5d4Xplained, Sama5d4ek, Sama5d3Xplained, Sama5d3xek)
USBGadget Config: Configure AT91 USB Gadget on Linux and Endpoint order management (composite USB). (Sama5d29Curiosity, Sam9x75Curiosity, Sam9x60Curiosity, Sama5d2-icp, Sam9x60EK, Sama5d27WLSom1EK, Sama5d27Som1EK, Sama5d2PtcEK, Sama5d2Xplained, Sama5d4Xplained, Sama5d4ek, Sama5d3Xplained, Sama5d3xek, AT91sam9x5-ek, other AT91SAM9 boards)
Pwm Faq: PWM Driver. (Sama5d29Curiosity, Sam9x75Curiosity, Sam9x60Curiosity, Sam9x60EK, Sama5d27WLSom1EK, Sama5d27Som1EK, Sama5d2PtcEK, Sama5d2Xplained, Sama5d4Xplained, Sama5d3Xplained, Sama5d3xek)
Using Atmel DRMDriver: Using Atmel KMS/DRM LCD driver. (Sama5d29Curiosity, Sam9x75Curiosity, Sam9x60Curiosity, Sam9x60EK, Sama5d27WLSom1EK, Sama5d27Som1EK, Sama5d2PtcEK, Sama5d2Xplained, Sama5d4Xplained, Sama5d4ek, Sama5d3Xplained, Sama5d3xek)
Using Max Touch: Introduction for how to use MaxTouch. (Sama5d29Curiosity, Sam9x75Curiosity, Sam9x60Curiosity)
Iio Adc Driver: Adc IIO driver introduction. (Sama5d4Xplained, Sama5d4ek, Sama5d3Xplained, Sama5d3xek, AT91sam9x5-ek, other AT91SAM9 boards)
Using Ultra Low Power Mode 1: Using Ultra Low Power mode 1 (ULP1). (Sama5d2-icp, Sama5d27WLSom1EK, Sama5d27Som1EK, Sama5d2PtcEK, Sama5d2Xplained)
Shutdown Wake Up: Use the Wakeup Feature of the Shutdown Controller.. (AT91sam9x5-ek)
PDMICAudio Record: Using the PDMIC to record audio stream. (Sama5d2Xplained)
Using Isi: How to use the Image Sensor Interface. (Sama5d4Xplained, Sama5d4ek, Sama5d3Xplained, Sama5d3xek)
r4 - 21 Oct 2016 - 13:07:18 - NicolasFerre
Linux & Open Source for AT91 Microchip Microprocessors

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